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Library Guides

Citation and Referencing Guide: Plagiarism

This guide provides resources to support your citation and referencing practice in line with academic requirements


In this guide, we are providing information about the academic practices and conventions of citing and referencing that, if followed, will minimise your risk of being accused of plagiarism as a form of academic misconduct.

If you provide citations and references to the authorities and institutions from whom you have borrowed, and you have avoided excessive reliance on any one of them, you will have adhered to the conventional academic conduct that enables you to demonstrate that you have learned from past authorities and evidence, while providing a sound basis for your own critical and creative interventions into academic discourse.

Plagiarism and the University

In the University’s Handbook of Academic Regulations, plagiarism is discussed in two contexts: using others' work without acknowledgement; and submitting work which you have previously submitted for assessment, that is, self-plagiarism.  

It is not an offence to draw on the ideas and words of others, in fact this is an essential part of academic discourse. However, any such borrowings or reliance should be appropriately acknowledged using quotation marks and in-text citations, and by providing a list of references of works cited and/or a bibliography of works read.

Using such conventions will enable you to make the demarcation between expressions borrowed from what you have read and your own commentary clear.

Penalties for Plagiarism

The University’s Handbook of Academic Regulations also sets out guidance on the expected penalties for plagiarism offences.  They vary according to the following four criteria:

The level of study
Whether it’s a first offence or subsequent offence
Whether the plagiarism is due to unreferenced paraphrasing or unreferenced quotation
The extent of the plagiarism (10%, 10-50%, above 50%, 100%)

At the lower end of the spectrum, the guidance for unreferenced paraphrasing of up to 10% is to ‘mark on merits’.  This means that your work would be marked on the basis of its non-plagiarised content.  The penalties are higher for more extensive or verbatim plagiarism.

Avoiding Plagiarism Online Tutorials

We strongly recommend you take the Avoiding Plagiarism tutorial on Blackboard: 

It should take less than an hour, and by the end, you will be able to:

  • Define plagiarism and describe different types of plagiarism
  • Recognise and describe key terms relating to plagiarism
  • Explain the importance of referencing
  • Compile accurate citations and references
  • Correctly paraphrase and acknowledge others' work
  • Make better use of referencing software to manage your citations and references
  • Develop strategies to help you avoid plagiarism in your own work